On Critical Thinking
excerpted notes from Critical Thinking Errors:
Errors that lead to shallow or uncritical decisions instead of careful judgments:
Faulty common sense
Group pressure can be intense.
Conformity can cripple your thinking…
It can cause dependence on others.
It can reduce your sense of responsibility.
GROUP THINK is probably the most severe example of conformity. It is the strong desire to concur in a group decision.
Face Saving/Ego –
Face saving is “attempting to preserve our image when reality threatens it”.
Face saving is self-protection, ego protection, and sometimes compensation for feelings of inferiority.
EGO is an obstacle to clear thinking. For instance:
Misinterpretation of perceptions
Rationalization is the exact opposite of reaching a logical decision.
The process for reaching a rational decision is to start with evidence and then move to a conclusion.
Evidence –> Conclusion
With rationalization you start with the conclusion you want, and then you gather evidence to support that conclusion.
Conclusion –> Evidence
Stereotyping forces us to choose sides.
Creates suspicion and blame
Victims are degraded
Stereotypers lose touch with reality and their fears grow
Social impulse is curbed
To avoid stereotyping:
Avoid jumping to the conclusion of neat categories.
Review ALL information before coming to a conclusion.
Suspend judgment; put off making conclusions
A hasty conclusion is a judgment arrived at before sufficient evidence is obtained or looked at.
Unwarranted assumptions are unexamined conclusions which we take for granted.
Other Potential Problems:
Appeal to loyalty
Appeal to pity
Appeal to prejudice
Shifting the burden of proof
POSTED BY qritiq